To the person asking this question... there are NUMEROUS books out there on this subject dating back to the 1960s or so. Usually this topic is not well covered in an article. Of course you can do an internet search for books but if you need me to suggest some old books, let me know. I have bunches from the days when CASE (Computer Aided/Assisted Software Engineering) was popular, my days learning to program, and my days getting my MS in Computer Science.
BTW, in the days of CASE, there were VERY good tools out there that would forward and reverse engineer to and from flow diagrams, just about any application you could name. Currently, X-Analysis does a pretty good job of doing what the old CASE tools did and its native on the i5.
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